Basically all comparison-based sort algorithms we use today stem from two basic algorithms: mergesort (stable sort, from 1945) and quicksort (unstable sort, from 1959).
Mergesort was improved by Tim Peters in 2002 and that became timsort. He invented a way to take advantage of pre-sorted intervals in arrays to speed up sorting. It's basically an additional layer over mergesort with a few other low-level tricks to minimize the amount memcpying.
Quicksort was improved by David Musser in 1997 when he developed introsort. He set a strict worst-case bound of O(n log n) on the algorithm, as well as improved the pivot selection strategy. And people are inventing new ways of pivot selection all the time. E.g. Andrei Alexandrescu has published a new method in 2017.
In 2016 Edelkamp and Weiß found a way to eliminate branch mispredictions during the partitioning phase in quicksort/introsort. This is a vast improvement. The same year Orson Peters adopted this technique and developed pattern-defeating quicksort. He also figured out multiple ways to take advantage of partially sorted arrays.
Sorting is a mostly "solved" problem in theory, but as new hardware emerges different aspects of implementations become more or less important (cache, memory, branch prediction) and then we figure out new tricks to take advantage of modern hardware. And finally, multicore became a thing fairly recently so there's a push to explore sorting in yet another direction...